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The plumbing system consists of the entire system of piping, fixtures and appliances used for water supply and drainage. The plumbing water supply system consists of water supply and distribution pipes, taps, valves, storage tanks etc., while plumbing drainage system consists of wash basins, water closets, urinals, traps, soil waste pipes, vent pipes, septic tanks etc.


Types of Water Pipes used in Building

1. PVC Pipes

PVC pipes are used for internal and external water supply system in buildings.

2. Copper Pipes

Copper pipes of heavy gauge and light gauge are used for better grade houses and where ground-water is highly corrosive to steel pipes.

3. Galvanized Iron Pipes

These pipes of heavy, medium and light grade are extensively used for water supply and drainage in building construction as they are economical.

4. Lead Pipes

These pipes are highly corrosion resistant and flexible.

Taps and stop-cocks in buildings are available from iron, brass and chromium plated varieties. Plumbing and Sanitary Items used in Building

External Water Supply System in Buildings

This system consists of water supply from the source such as bore well, well or water treatment plant to overhead water tanks and from overhead water tanks to the houses. For this, the cast iron pipes or G.I. pipes are used.

Plumbing Drainage System in Buildings

There are 5 types of drainage water pipes used in building construction:

  1. Soil Pipe
  2. Waste pipe
  3. Vent pipe
  4. Rainwater pipe
  5. Anti-siphonage pipes

1. Soil Pipes and Waste Pipes

These pipes remove sewage and greywater from building and are connected to the common drainage system. They are generally fitted to the exterior of the building.

The main use of soil pipe and waste pipe is the removal of waste from toilets, sinks, showers and baths. These are fitted with vent pipes on the top for the release of odors.

Traditionally, cast-iron soil pipes and waste pipes were used, but these days uPVC pipes are more common.

2. Vent Pipe

Vent pipes are attached to the top of soil and waste pipe for the release of bad odors.

3. Rainwater Pipes

These pipes are attached to the roof or open area above building for the removal or collection of rainwater. The rainwater pipes are drawn to the ground level in case of removal or these are connected to the rainwater collection network or tank for rainwater harvesting. These are generally made of PVC material.

3. Anti-Siphonage Pipes

These are connected to the outlets of toilets which are provided to maintain water seal to prevent entry of foul gases of the sewer lines into the toilets and bathrooms. These are made of PVC and their sizes must conform to the respective standard specifications.

Sanitary Fittings used in Buildings

Following are the commonly used sanitary fittings for buildings:

  1. Hand wash basins
  2. Sinks (glazed or stainless-steel sinks)
  3. Bath tubs
  4. Water closets
  5. Urinals
  6. Flushing cisterns

Types of Water Closets

Water closets generally used are:

  1. Indian type
  2. European type or pedestal types
  3. Anglo-Indian type

Types of Urinals

  1. Bowl type or lip type urinals
  2. Stall type

Types of Flushing Cisterns

  1. Low level 10 liters capacity
  2. High level 10 liters capacity
  3. Automatic flushing type for urinals
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